Figure 13: Significant weather prognostic chart. The cells within the line are moving from 240° at 25 knots. Present Weather—Over 100 different weather symbols are used to describe the current weather. Prognostic charts are an excellent source of information for preflight planning; however, this chart should be viewed in light of current conditions and specific local area forecasts. Prog Charts are forecasts for surface conditions. 10:12 PM Eastern, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, N A T I O N A L   W E A T H E R   S E R V I C E, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, every 3 hours about 90 minutes after valid time, ~0200 (valid 12Z), 0400 (18Z), 1300 (00Z), and 1430 (06Z), ~0430 (valid 00Z), 0700 (06Z), 1330 (12Z), and 1930 (18Z), ~1400 (valid 12Z). The High-Level Significant Weather Prog, encompasses airspace from 25,000 feet to 60,000 feet pressure altitude over the conterminous U.S., Mexico, Central America, portions of South America, the western Atlantic, and eastern Pacific. It defines an area from Oklahoma City to Dallas, Texas, to San Antonio, to Midland, Texas, to Childress, Texas, to Oklahoma City that will experience occasional moderate turbulence below 6,000 feet due to strong and gusty low-level winds. You might see rain clouds forming. Here are the precipitation types: NDFD Rain (Chance) - There is chance of measurable rain (≥0.01") at the valid time. Since the temperatures above 24,000 feet are negative, the minus sign is omitted. The chart is published hourly at 35 minutes past the hour. You'll see weather from all seasons and areas, so you can read any report your check pilot throws at you. The synopsis is valid from the time of issuance until 0400 hours on the 13th. This is the most comprehensive book on aviation weather ever written. Visit: http://passfaaexams.com/ to see how we can help you put your aviation exams behind you! Surface aviation weather observations (METARs) are a compilation of weather elements of the current weather at ground stations across the United States. At times, RVR, or runway visual range is reported following the prevailing visibility. Figures below the line show the anticipated base, while figures above the line show the top of the zone of turbulence. A follow-up briefing prior to departure is advisable since an outlook briefing generally only contains information based on weather trends and existing weather in geographical areas at or near the departure airport. The best part is it’s easy to read. Wind—Winds are reported with five digits (14021) unless the speed is greater than 99 knots, in which case the wind is reported with six digits. Direct User Access Terminal Service (DUATS). Areas of VFR (no ceiling or ceiling greater than 3,000 feet and visibility greater than 5 miles) are not outlined. The upper two panels show forecast significant weather, which may include nonconvective turbulence, freezing levels, and IFR or MVFR weather. Direction of movement of the pressure center is depicted by an arrow. Thunderstorms and very heavy rain showers are indicated. Location identifier and time of radar observation. A 4-digit data group shows the wind direction in reference to true north, and the windspeed in knots. It is also used when an aircraft is overdue or is reported missing. The FAA is the source for all data and information utilized in the publishing of aeronautical charts through authorized publishers for each stage of Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) air navigation including training, planning, and departures, enroute (for lo… These symbols are not the same as used on the METAR charts. Typical millibar pressure readings range from 950.0 to 1040.0 millibars. Station Identifier—Each station is identified by a four-letter code as established by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). In other regions of the world, including Alaska and Hawaii, the first two letters of the four-letter ICAO identifier indicate the region, country, or state. Pilot weather reports provide valuable information regarding the conditions as they actually exist in the air, which cannot be gathered from any other source. NONE.”, MKCC WST 221855 CONVECTIVE SIGMET 21C VALID UNTIL 2055 KS OK TX VCNTY GLD-CDS LINE NO SGFNT TSTMS RPRTD LINE TSTMS DVLPG BY 1955Z WILL MOV EWD 30-35 KT THRU 2055Z HAIL TO 2 IN PSBL. A service specifically designed to provide timely enroute weather information upon pilot request is known as the enroute flight advisory service (EFAS), or Flight Watch. Dewpoint—Dewpoint is given in degrees Fahrenheit. A radar summary chart is a graphically depicted collection of radar weather reports (SDs). Terminal radar ensures pilots are aware of wind shear, gust fronts, and heavy precipitation, all of which are dangerous to arriving and departing aircraft. As of 1000 Zulu, there is a low pressure trough over the Oklahoma and Texas panhandle area, which is forecast to move eastward into central southwestern Oklahoma by 0400 Zulu. In addition, medium range forecasts every day from three Using radio telemetry, radiosonde observations are made by sounding balloons from which weather data is received twice daily. A pilot can usually contact an EFAS specialist from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. anywhere in the conterminous U.S. and Puerto Rico. The turbulence section of the AIRMET is an update for Oklahoma and Texas. For 1000 mbs or greater, prefix a 10 to the three digits. Radar weather reports are issued by radar stations at 35 minutes past the hour, with special reports issued as needed. EFAS provides a pilot with weather advisories tailored to the type of flight, route, and cruising altitude. Weather Forecasting for Aviation. Radar summary charts are a depiction of current precipitation and should be used in conjunction with current METAR and weather forecasts. 3. A “Z” is appended to the end of the time to denote the time is given in Zulu time (UTC) as opposed to local time. En Route Forecast—The en route forecast is a summary of the weather forecast for the proposed route of flight. Area (AREA)—A group of echoes of similar type and not classified as a line. ICAO Station Identifier—The station identifier is the same as that used in a METAR. GLOSSARY OF WEATHER TERMS A. absolute instability—A state of a layer within the atmosphere in which the vertical distribution of temperature is such that an air parcel, if given an upward or downward push, will move away from its initial level without further outside force being applied.. absolute temperature scale—See Kelvin Temperature Scale. The lower two panels show the forecast surface weather and depicts the forecast locations and characteristics of pressure systems, fronts, and precipitation. An outlook briefing should be requested when a planned departure is 6 or more hours away. The first three indicate the direction of the wind in reference to true north. After the letter “G,” the peak gust recorded is provided. How to Read an Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR). The first is the routine METAR report that is transmitted every hour. AFT 20Z SCT TSRA DVLPG..FEW POSS SEV. Charts are issued four times a day at 0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z, and 1800Z. The area forecast shows information given by Dallas Fort Worth, for the region of Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, as well as a portion of the gulf coastal waters. This type of chart typically displays major fronts or areas of high and low pressure. Specifically, TIBS provides area and route briefings, airspace procedures, and special announcements. Clouds above 12,000 feet are not detected or reported by an automated station. They join together places with the same mean sea level air pressure (weight per square area of air above). It was issued on the 12th day of the month at 0945. TOPS FL200. Type of Report—There are two types of METAR reports. 1. These upper air observations provide temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind data for heights up to and above 100,000 feet. 7. Type of precipitation—The type of precipitation is marked on the chart using specific symbols. The TIBS service is available 24 hours a day and is updated when conditions change, but it can only be accessed by a TOUCH-TONE© phone. Forecast Visibility—The forecast visibility is given in statute miles and may be in whole numbers or fractions. The last section is primarily used to prepare radar summary charts, but can be used during preflight to determine the maximum precipitation intensity within a specific grid box. The heading also indicates that the temperatures above 24,000 feet MSL are negative. For less than 1000 mbs, prefix a 9 to the three digits. Typically, weather charts show the movement of major weather systems and fronts. Flight planning is easy on our large collection of Aeronautical Charts, including Sectional Charts, Approach Plates, IFR Enroute Charts, and Helicopter route charts. A weather brief should be part of any preparation for flight. Observations of upper air weather prove to be more challenging than surface observations. Alaska identifiers always begin with the letters “PA” and Hawaii identifiers always begin with the letters “PH.” A list of station identifiers can be found at an FSS or NWS office. METAR KGGG 161753Z AUTO 14021G26 3/4SM +TSRA BR BKN008 OVC012CB 18/17 A2970 RMK PRESFR. The areas are derived from the NDFD grid for weather. 2. Unique symbols indicate the type of precipitation and the manner in which it occurs. Each of these reporting points is illustrated by a station model. Figure 1: HIWAS availability is shown on sectional chart. VFR clouds and weather information on this area forecast is valid until 2200 hours on the 12th and the outlook is valid until 0400 hours on the 13th. DFWTWA 241650 AIRMET TANGO UPDT 3 FOR TURBC… STG SFC WINDS AND LLWS VALID UNTIL 242000 AIRMET TURBC… OK TX…UPDT FROM OKC TO DFW TO SAT TO MAF TO CDS TO OKC OCNL MDT TURBC BLO 60 DUE TO STG AND GUSTY LOW LVL WINDS. Forecast Wind—The wind direction and speed forecast are given in a five-digit number group. The elevation at Denver (DEN) is 5,431 feet, so the lowest reportable altitude is 9,000 feet for the winds and temperature forecast. Stations located offshore give data from ships, buoys, or offshore platforms. Cell movement—Movement is only coded for cells; it will not be coded for lines or areas. A bracket ( ] ) symbol to the right of the station indicates the observation was made by an automated station. The TAF utilizes the same descriptors and abbreviations as used in the METAR report. The broadcasts include advisories such as AIRMETS, SIGMETS, convective SIGMETS, and urgent PIREPs. Aviation weather packages should always include SIGWX SIGWX charts provide an accurate visual presentation of what weather hazards an aircrew can expect to encounter while en route. Here it is important to know your way around aviation weather reporting - what is available and how is it read. These conditions will be beginning after 0200 Zulu and will continue beyond the forecast scope of this SIGMET of 0530 Zulu. The third type of radar commonly used in the detection of precipitation is the FAA airport surveillance radar. Item numbers one through five are required information when making a report, as well as at least one weather phenomenon encountered. EFAS can be one of the best sources for current weather information along the route of flight. AIRMETs (WAs) are examples of in-flight weather advisories that are issued every 6 hours with intermediate updates issued as needed for a particular area forecast region. Areas of moderate or greater turbulence are enclosed in dashed lines. NDFD Rain (Likely) - Measurable rain (≥0.01") is likely at the valid time. Zigzag lines and the letters “SFC” indicate freezing levels in that area are at the surface. They are issued 3 times a day, amended as needed, and are valid for a 24-hour period. Convective significant meteorological information (WST). Altimeter Setting—The altimeter setting is reported as inches of mercury in a four-digit number group (A2970). Sky Condition—Sky condition (BKN008 OVC012CB) is always reported in the sequence of amount, height, and type or indefinite ceiling/height (vertical visibility). After 2000 Zulu, the forecast calls for scattered thunderstorms with rain developing and a few becoming severe; the cumulonimbus clouds will have tops at flight level 450 or 45,000 feet MSL. KPIR 111130Z 111212 15012KT P6SM BKN090 TEMPO 1214 5SM BR FM1500 16015G25KT P6SM SCT040 BKN250 FM0000 14012KT P6SM BKN080 OVC150 PROB40 0004 3SM TSRA BKN030CB FM0400 1408KT P6SM SCT040 OVC080 TEMPO 0408 3SM TSRA OVC030CB BECMG 0810 32007KT=. A detailed explanation of a station model is depicted in the previous discussion of surface analysis charts. 9. Figure 6 shows an area forecast chart with six regions of forecast, states, regional areas, and common geographical features. 2. Statements made here regarding height are given in MSL, and if given otherwise, AGL or CIG (ceiling) will be noted. The area forecast covers VFR clouds and weather, so the precautionary statement warns that AIRMET Sierra should be referenced for IFR conditions and mountain obscuration. IFR areas are enclosed by solid lines, MVFR areas are enclosed by scalloped lines, and the remaining, unenclosed area is designated VFR. Fog or special weather: BR: Mist or light fog: MIFG: More or less continuous shallow fog: VCTS: Vicinity thunderstorm: VIRGA: Virga or precipitation not hitting ground: VCSH: Vicinity showers: TS: … Transcribed Information Briefing Service (TIBS). An in-flight weather advisory is issued in the form of either an AIRMET, SIGMET, or Convective SIGMET. 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