8. [27]. Review the documents for the Research phase of the FRAME engineering design model. (a) Flocculation and (b) protection. After a series of hydrolysis, polymerization and ferrous oxidation processes, it develops into various hydroxyl groups. rapid sand filtration) to enhance the ability of a treatment process to remove particles. The flocculation efficiency of cationic polymers such as chitosan is highly dependent on pH with a pH of 7 being optimal for flocculation in low salinity media [67]. Coagulation-flocculation is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to sedimentation and filtration (e.g. It’s used in the first stage of solids-liquids separation: settling, flotation or filtration . A Flocculation Test Procedure is used to determine how much Flocculants need be added to solids in suspension (slurry or pulp) to cause the individual particles to collect in the form of flocs. Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely … Flocculation mechanism: • Flocculants, with their very high molecular weights (long monomer chain ) and their charge content, fix the destabilized particles and aggregates along the polymer chain. Retention time for flocculation varies greatly but typically is longer than 15 minutes. The amount of chemical you use is an important consideration for a green engineer. flocculation and sedimentation to remove the colloidal particles in the water. The flocculation process is also affected by pH, salts, alkalinity, turbidity, temperature and degree of mixing. The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of SS and colloidal particles. Many water treatment plants use a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to provide clean, safe drinking water to the public. Through extensive jar testing an optimal time can be found. Under the action of direct current, the anode is corroded to produce Al and Fe plasma. [68]. The reaction principle of electro-flocculation is to use metals such as aluminum and iron as anodes. The formation of flocs aids in improved settling rates, better overhead clarity and/or faster filtration rates. Principle of bridging flocculation and protective effect of macromolecule. For flocculation, the mixing usually occurs in gently stirred compartments. Now that you have completed this portion of the research phase, it is time to Common designs based on the flocculation principle are the horizontal reel and another one is the turbine mixer . Other articles where Flocculation test is discussed: serological test: …types of serological tests—for example, flocculation tests, neutralization tests, hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and chemiluminescence immunoassays. 5.1.2 Inorganic flocculants Flocculation mechanism: • Principle: • Removal of Hydrophobic Colloids from the Aqueous Phase. Coagulation is a process used to neutralise charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in the filter. Chitosan-based flocculants are further discussed by Yang et al. Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal particles brought about by the addition of a chemical reagent called as coagulant. Flocculation with cationic starch is discussed by Vandamme et al. ) to enhance the ability of a chemical reagent called as coagulant it into. 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