This silver-colored rare earth element is one of several elements discovered from ores from a quarry in Ytterby, Sweden. The model with one single ytterbium ion caught in an ion trap is highly accurate. This behavior is unusual for lanthanides, which almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. Phase at Room Temperature: Solid. Due to his original belief of the composition of ytterbia, Marignac is credited with the discovery of ytterbium. What Mosander called erbia is now called terbia and visa versa. The melting point of ytterbium is 1,097 degrees Kelvin … The main mining areas are China, the United States, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, and Australia. Other chemists produced and experimented with ytterbium in an attempt to determine some of it's properties. Ytterbium also has 12 meta states, with the most stable being 169mYb (t1/2 46 seconds). It is most often recovered commercially from monazite sand (0.03% ytterbium). This property is used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations from earthquakes and explosions. [7][10], In contrast with the other rare-earth metals, which usually have antiferromagnetic and/or ferromagnetic properties at low temperatures, ytterbium is paramagnetic at temperatures above 1.0 kelvin. Technical data for Ytterbium. What's in a name? Ytterbium is normally difficult to separate from other rare earths, but ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques developed in the mid- to late 20th century have simplified separation. [16], Ytterbium is often the most common substitute in yttrium minerals. Ytterbium can then be separated from other lanthanides by ion exchange, as can other lanthanides. The dihalides are susceptible to oxidation to the trihalides at room temperature and disproportionate to the trihalides and metallic ytterbium at high temperature:[9], Some ytterbium halides are used as reagents in organic synthesis. [7], Contrary to most other lanthanides, which have a close-packed hexagonal lattice, ytterbium crystallizes in the face-centered cubic system. He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium" (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium). One of ytterbium's isotopes is being considered as a radiation source for portable X-ray machines. What's in a name? Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 14 Fabian Dankert, Kirsten Reuter, Carsten Donsbach, Carsten von Hänisch, A structural study of alkaline earth metal complexes with hybrid disila-crown ethers, Dalton Trans., 10.1039/C6DT04018G, 46 , 27, (8727-8735), (2017). Group Number: none. Marignac believed that ytterbia was a compound of a new element, which he named ytterbium. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral ytterbium is [ Xe ]. A pair of experimental atomic clocks based on ytterbium atoms at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has set a record for stability. Ytterbium. [25] Ytterbium(III) oxide can be reduced to ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) with elemental ytterbium, which crystallizes in the same structure as sodium chloride. The world production of ytterbium is only about 50 tonnes per year, reflecting that it has few commercial applications. [29] Urbain and Welsbach accused each other of publishing results based on the other party. Ytterbium (symbol Yb, atomic number 70) is a naturally formed chemical element known to science since the 1840s. We publish and operate an extensive portfolio of digital and print products featuring comprehensive in-depth content from the… The large number of atoms is key to the clocks' high stability. At high concentrations, the ytterbium-doped materials show photodarkening[45] After some discussion, Marignac's name "ytterbium" was retained. In 1907, the new earth "lutecia" was separated from ytterbia, from which the element "lutecium" (now lutetium) was extracted by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Charles James. Ytterbium is a silvery-white chemical element that belongs to the group of lanthanides. The addition of neutral coligands to reduce the aggregation and improve the volatility of potential heavy alkaline-earth metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursors has typically resulted in liberation of the coligand upon heating. However, ytterbium compounds cause irritation to human skin and eyes, and some might be teratogenic. Ytterbium clocks hold the record for stability with ticks stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (2×10−18). [49] The optimization of the ytterbium-doped glass itself through host glass modification of various dopants also plays a large part in reducing the background loss of the glass, improvements in slope efficiency of the fiber, and improved photodarkening performance, all of which contribute to increased power levels in 1 µm systems. [11] However, the alpha allotrope is diamagnetic. [7], Ytterbium has three allotropes labeled by the Greek letters alpha, beta and gamma; their transformation temperatures are −13 °C and 795 °C,[7] although the exact transformation temperature depends on the pressure and stress. Group Name: Lanthanide. Properties The element's atomic weight is just over 173. The primary decay mode of ytterbium isotopes lighter than the most abundant stable isotope, 174Yb, is electron capture, and the primary decay mode for those heavier than 174Yb is beta decay. At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source. [39], The kinetic of excitations in ytterbium-doped materials is simple and can be described within the concept of effective cross-sections; for most ytterbium-doped laser materials (as for many other optically pumped gain media), the McCumber relation holds,[40][41][42] although the application to the ytterbium-doped composite materials was under discussion. Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is not found free in nature. [9], Ytterbium metal tarnishes slowly in air, taking on a golden or brown hue. Natural ytterbium consists of seven stable isotopes: ytterbium-174 (32.0 percent), ytterbium-172 (21.7 percent), ytterbium-173 (16.1 percent), ytterbium-171 (14.1 percent), ytterbium-176 (13 percent), ytterbium-170 (3 percent), and ytterbium-168 (0.1 percent). Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. Say what? Atomic Weight: 174.9668. A relatively pure sample of the metal was not obtained until 1953. Its electrical resistivity increases ten times upon compression to 39,000 atmospheres (3.9 GPa), but then drops to about 10% of its room-temperature resistivity at about 40,000 atm (4.0 GPa). The main deposits of ytterbium are found in China, United States, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka and Australia. (1), (2)In 1907, in Paris, George Urbain separated ytterbia into two constituents. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. 70: Ytterbium - Ytterbium [Yb] Group: 3 Period: 6 Atomic number: 70 Atomic mass: 173.054 Configuration: [Xe] 4f 14 6s 2 Atomic radius: 222 pm Covalent radius: 187 pm In 1878, the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth "erbia" another independent component, which he called "ytterbia", for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new component of erbium. Order Now and get the best Isotops. It is quite stable in air; rapid oxidation begins above approximately 450 °C (840 °F), resulting in Y2O3. The yellow-green ytterbium(II) ion is a very strong reducing agent and decomposes water, releasing hydrogen gas, and thus only the colorless ytterbium(III) ion occurs in aqueous solution. [50] Entangling gates, such as the Mølmer–Sørensen gate, have been achieved by addressing the ions with mode-locked pulse lasers. Visible light waves oscillate faster than microwaves, and therefore optical clocks can be more precise than caesium atomic clocks. 9h ago. Ytterbium fires cannot be extinguished using water, and only dry chemical class D fire extinguishers can extinguish the fires. For questions about this page, please contact Steve Gagnon. While examining samples of gadolinite, Marignac found a new component in the earth then known as erbia, and he named it ytterbia, for Ytterby, the Swedish village near where he found the new component of erbium. [30][31][32] The Commission on Atomic Mass, consisting of Frank Wigglesworth Clarke, Wilhelm Ostwald, and Georges Urbain, which was then responsible for the attribution of new element names, settled the dispute in 1909 by granting priority to Urbain and adopting his names as official ones, based on the fact that the separation of lutetium from Marignac's ytterbium was first described by Urbain. Power levels have increased from the 1 kW regimes due to the advancements in components as well as the Yb-doped fibers. 6s2 and the term symbol of ytterbium is 1S0. [33], The 169Yb isotope (with a half-life of 32 days), which is created along with the short-lived 175Yb isotope (half-life 4.2 days) by neutron activation during the irradiation of ytterbium in nuclear reactors, has been used as a radiation source in portable X-ray machines. He performed a series of fractional crystallizations of ytterbium nitrate from nitric acid solution and ob… Ytterbium atoms have 70 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.8.2. 628 Hofstadter Road, Suite 6Newport News, VA 23606, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is managed by, Jefferson Science Associates, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy. Group Name: Lanthanide. Inquiry: Ytterbium: 7440-64-4: Chemwill Asia Co., Ltd. Ytterbium has a melting point of 809 C, and boiling point of 1196 C. The element has a density of 6.9 grams per cubic centimetre. Ytterbium dissolves slowly in water, but quickly in acids, liberating hydrogen gas. Melting Point: 1936 K (1663°C or 3025°F) Boiling Point: 3675 K (3402°C or 6156°F) Density: 9.84 grams per cubic centimeter. [10], As an even-numbered lanthanide, in accordance with the Oddo-Harkins rule, ytterbium is significantly more abundant than its immediate neighbors, thulium and lutetium, which occur in the same concentrate at levels of about 0.5% each. Much progress has been made in the power scaling lasers and amplifiers produced with ytterbium (Yb) doped optical fibers. The metal is purified by sublimation and collected over a condensed plate. 169Yb is also used in nuclear medicine.[34]. In 1878 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, a Swiss chemist, discovered that erbia was itself consisted of two components. One component was named ytterbia by Marignac while the other component retained the name erbia. Ytterbium: description. [10] The price of ytterbium was relatively stable between 1953 and 1998 at about US$1,000/kg. Ytterbium is a soft, malleable and rather ductile element that exhibits a bright silvery luster.A rare earth, the element is easily attacked and dissolved by mineral acids, slowly reacts with water, and oxidizes in air.The oxide forms a protective layer on the surface. In order to achieve even higher power levels in ytterbium-based fiber systems. [17], It is relatively difficult to separate ytterbium from other lanthanides due to its similar properties. The charged ion 171Yb+ is used in trapped-ion qubits in quantum computing. Ytterbium is mostly separated from its ores through ion exchange and solvent extraction technique otherwise it is very difficult . [35] The clocks developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) rely on about 10,000 rare-earth atoms cooled to 10 microkelvin (10 millionths of a degree above absolute zero) and trapped in an optical lattice—a series of pancake-shaped wells made of laser light. Ytterbium dissolves readily in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions that contain the colorless Yb(III) ions, which exist as nonahydrate complexes:[13], Although usually trivalent, ytterbium readily forms divalent compounds. The small quantum defect makes ytterbium a prospective dopant for efficient lasers and power scaling. In the latter method, a buffered acidic solution of trivalent rare earths is treated with molten sodium-mercury alloy, which reduces and dissolves Yb3+. For questions about home delivery of The Post-Standard or digital support for ePost-Standard: Email: subscriberservices@syracuse.com or. Phone. The element is also found in euxenite and xenotime. The clocks would be accurate within a second for a period comparable to the age of the universe. Urbain named one of the elements neoytterbium (new ytterbium) and the other element lutecium. The state of ytterbium in its natural form is solid. Ytterbium is pronounced as i-TUR-bee-em. Thus, small 169Yb samples (which emit gamma rays) act like tiny X-ray machines useful for radiography of small objects. The element is named after Ytterby, Sweden. Estimated Crustal Abundance: 3.2 milligrams per kilogram, Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 8.2×10-7 milligrams per liter, Number of Stable Isotopes: 7 (View all isotope data). Its melting and boiling points are also significantly lower than those of thulium and lutetium. It is classified as a rare earth metal and a lanthanide, and behaves quite similarly to the other members of this group. The chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb . Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and images. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. The optical clock based on it is exact to 17 digits after the decimal point. [37], Ytterbium can also be used as a dopant to help improve the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. This is due to the closed-shell electron configuration of ytterbium ([Xe] 4f14 6s2), which causes only the two 6s electrons to be available for metallic bonding (in contrast to the other lanthanides where three electrons are available) and increases ytterbium's metallic radius. [48] Ytterbium-doped LMA fibers also have the advantages of a larger mode field diameter, which negates the impacts of nonlinear effects such as stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering, which limit the achievement of higher power levels, and provide a distinct advantage over single mode ytterbium-doped fibers. Collected over a condensed plate order to achieve even higher power levels in the earth 's is. 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